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|Título:||New mitochondrial and nuclear evidences support recent demographic expansion and an atypical phylogeographic pattern in the Spittlebug Philaenus spumarius (Hemiptera, Aphrophoridae)|
|Autor:||Rodrigues, Ana S. B.|
Silva, Sara E.
Silva, Diogo N.
Wilson, Mike R.
Borges, Paulo A. V.
Quartau, José A.
Paulo, Octávio S.
Seabra, Sofia G.
|Palavras-chave:||Philaenus spumarius (Hemiptera, Aphrophoridae)|
|Editora:||Public Library of Science|
|Citação:||Rodrigues, A.S.; Silva, S.E.; Marabuto, E.; Silva, Diogo N.; Wilson, Mike R.; Thompson, Vinton; Yurtsever, Selçuk; Halkka, Antti; Borges, P.A.V.; Quartau, J.A.; Paulo, Octávio S.; Seabra, S.G. (2014). "New mitochondrial and nuclear evidences support recent demographic expansion and an atypical phylogeographic pattern in the Spittlebug Philaenus spumarius (Hemiptera, Aphrophoridae)", PLoS ONE, 9(6): e98375-e98375.|
|Resumo:||Philaenus spumarius is a widespread insect species in the Holarctic region. Here, by focusing on the mtDNA gene COI but also using the COII and Cyt b genes and the nuclear gene EF-1α, we tried to explain how and when its current biogeographic pattern evolved by providing time estimates of the main demographic and evolutionary events and investigating its colonization patterns in and out of Eurasia. Evidence of recent divergence and expansion events at less than 0.5 Ma ago indicate that climate fluctuations in the Mid-Late Pleistocene were important in shaping the current phylogeographic pattern of the species. Data support a first split and differentiation of P. spumarius into two main mitochondrial lineages: the "western", in the Mediterranean region and the "eastern", in Anatolia/Caucasus. It also supports a following differentiation of the "western" lineage into two sub-lineages: the "western-Mediterranean", in Iberia and the "eastern-Mediterranean" in the Balkans. The recent pattern seems to result from postglacial range expansion from Iberia and Caucasus/Anatolia, thus not following one of the four common paradigms. Unexpected patterns of recent gene-flow events between Mediterranean peninsulas, a close relationship between Iberia and North Africa, as well as high levels of genetic diversity being maintained in northern Europe were found. The mitochondrial pattern does not exactly match to the nuclear pattern suggesting that the current biogeographic pattern of P. spumarius may be the result of both secondary admixture and incomplete lineage sorting. The hypothesis of recent colonization of North America from both western and northern Europe is corroborated by our data and probably resulted from accidental human translocations. A probable British origin for the populations of the Azores and New Zealand was revealed, however, for the Azores the distribution of populations in high altitude native forests is somewhat puzzling and may imply a natural colonization of the archipelago.|
|Descrição:||Copyright: © 2014 Rodrigues et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.|
|Aparece nas colecções:||DCA - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais / Articles in International Journals|
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