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|Título:||Filogenia, biogeografia e ecologia das térmitas dos Açores|
|Outros títulos:||Phylogeny, biogeography and ecology of azorean termites|
|Autor:||Myles, Timothy G.|
Borges, Paulo A. V.
Ferreira, Maria T.
|Palavras-chave:||Térmita de Madeira|
|Citação:||Myles, T.G., Borges, P.A.V., Ferreira, M., Guerreiro, O., Borges, A. & Rodrigues, C. (2007). "Filogenia, biogeografia e ecologia das térmitas dos Açores". In P.A.V. Borges & T. Myles (eds.), «Térmitas dos Açores», Estoril (Lisboa), Principia, pp. 15-28.|
|Resumo:||Three species of termites are currently known in the archipelago (the European dampwood termite, Kalotermes flavicollis, the West Indies drywood termite, Cryptotermes brevis, and the Iberian subterranean termite Reticulitermes grassei). All these three species are "lower termites", that is, primitive species having simple galleries but not well formed nests, tending to be less socially advanced and to occur in more temperate latitudes, generally eating only wood but not other types of cellulose, and all having flagellates in the gut. Kalotermes flavicollis is native to most of the Mediterranean region and was probably introduced in the islands many decades ago through vineyard or orchard stocks. In Terceira Island, K. flavicollis is common in the heartwood of several trees and shrubs along the coast. Its colony members may exceed 1000 but the average colony has 600. This termite has been considered as a minor structural pest in a few houses, but structural infestations by this species only occur in association with moisture due to leaks or condensation. Cryptotermes brevis is the most destructive drywood termite pest in the world. Due to its exceptional ability to withstand wood with low moisture content it is able to attack all kinds of dead and dry wood with a strong preference for sapwood over heartwood. It attacks wood in service including structural timbers, beams, studs, rafters, cladding, flooring, molding, doors, window frames and wooden articles such as carvings, tools, picture frames, musical instruments, looms, bed posts, and almost all forms of wood. Serious infestations of this termite are currently known in São Miguel, Terceira, Faial and Santa Maria Islands. Local research has shown that colony size may range up to about 300 but that average colony size is only 45 individuals. Severe damage results not from individual colonies but from high levels of reinfestation leading to the establishment of large numbers of colonies. Successful colony foundation by this termite is promoted by the widespread occurrence of several anobiid beetles whose exit holes in wood provide ideal entrance holes for termite alates. Reticulitermes grassei, a subterranean termite, has only been found in the Azores Archipelago, in the Horta city (Faial Island) where it has been causing severe damage to a few buildings. Reticulitermes colonies may grow to millions of individuals promoted by numerous nymphoid reproductive’s which develop within colonies. Unlike the other two species, colonies of Reticulitermes may spread by tunnelling through the ground.|
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